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South India includes five Indian states Andhra Pradesh (Visakhapatnam), Karnataka (Bangalore), Kerala (Cochin), Tamil Nadu (Madras / chennai) and Telangana (Hyderabad), as well as the three union territories: the Lakshadweep, Andaman-Nicobar and Pondicherry Islands.
Covering the southern part of the Deccan Peninsular Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Arabian Sea to the west and the Indian Ocean to the south. The geography of the region is diverse and includes two mountain ranges: the Western and Eastern Ghats, which border the heart of the plateau.
The majority of the population of southern India speaks one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, and Malayalam. Europeans entered India through Kerala and the area was colonized by Britain and other nations.
After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately following Indian independence, the economies of the southern Indian states have grown above the national average over the past three decades.
Although some socio-economic indicators have improved in the southern states of India, poverty continues to affect the region in the same way as the rest of the country, although it has declined significantly over the years. The HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has grown faster than that of most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are above the national average, with around 80% of the population able to read and write. The fertility rate in South India is 1.9, the lowest of any region in India.
The humid and dry tropical climate, drier than the tropical monsoon climate areas, prevails over most of the interior peninsular region, except for a semi-arid rain shadow in the east of the Western Ghats. Winter and early summer are long, dry periods with average temperatures above 18 ° C.
The summer is extremely hot, with temperatures in the lowlands above 50 ° C and the rainy season lasts from June to September. Most of the rainfall in southern India falls in Tamil Nadu, leaving the other states relatively dry.
The hot, semi-arid climate predominates in the lands east of the Western Ghats and the Cardamom Hills. The region, which includes Karnataka, the interior of Tamil Nadu and western Andhra Pradesh, receives between 400 and 750 millimeters of precipitation per year, with hot summers and dry winters with temperatures of around 20– 24 ° C.
The months of March to May are hot and dry, with average monthly temperatures hovering around 32 ° C, with rainfall of 320 mm and without artificial irrigation, this region is not suitable for agriculture.
The southwest monsoon from June to September accounts for most of the precipitation in the region. These are the southwest flows from the Oman Sea that hit the Western Ghats along the coastal state of Kerala and head north along the Konkan coast, with rainfall over coastal areas, west of the Western Ghats. The noble Western Ghats prevent the winds from reaching the Deccan plateau; therefore, the leeward region (the windless region) receives very little precipitation.
The southwest monsoon flows from the Bay of Bengal head towards northeast India. The Coramandel coast (Chennai ...) does not receive much rainfall from the southwest monsoon due to the topology and shape of the tip of India.
Finally, Tamil Nadu and south-eastern Andhra Pradesh also receive north-eastern monsoon rains. This northeast monsoon occurs from November to early March, Tropical cyclones of the northern Indian Ocean form year round in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, causing devastating winds and strong Particular precipitation on the Coromandel coast (Chennai)
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